concept of inclusion in physical education

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Resources Fixing the Broken Promise of Education for All. 0000003508 00000 n KEYWORDS: Self-concept, self-esteem, disability, inclusion, physical education Received for Publication: 13/09/12 Accepted for Publication: 21/01/13 Corresponding Author: [email protected] INTRODUCTION The study of self-concept is one of the most significant issues in the human sciences generally and educational studies in particular. Neighbourhood schools are the heart of our communities, and Inclusion BC believes they are essential for a quality inclusive education system. Read the story. 0000004013 00000 n Here are five strategies that have been successful for working with students in the inclusive classroom. 0000007859 00000 n Lecturers in the two types of studies—disciplinary and pedagogical—can together plan some of their classes and provide the students with examples of how information from one class (e.g., a disciplinary class) can be related to elements of information discussed in another class (e.g., a pedagogy class). To achieve this, the students with disabilities shared their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts about their involvement in the program, in and out of class. In the third section, we describe a number of actions taken in one college that enabled students with disabilities to enroll in a PE TPP. 0000003294 00000 n They outlined the main actions they performed with these students, in and out of class. In these meetings, the lecturer focused on specific issues taught in the class upon the request of the student. %%EOF Available from: International Perspectives of Distance Learning in Higher Education, Theoretical background and practical frameworks of an inclusive pedagogy. The idea behind inclusive education is that students with special needs will be placed in the same classroom environment as other students their age who do not have special needs. In addition to the seven pillars postulated by Loreman [30], an additional context of teachers’ practice appears to be of significant importance—students’ assessment [51]. Inclusion is a term used by people with disabilities and other disability rights advocates for the idea that all people should take action to freely accommodate people with a physical, mental, cognitive, and or developmental disability. ), and then take part in the pedagogical/teaching program for an additional 1 or 2 years of study. For example, in the year 2002, the Israel Knesset (the unicameral national legislature of Israel) approved the Integration Law (see [70]). However, there is also one potential limitation in the concept of linking the disciplinary studies to the pedagogical studies. 0000003678 00000 n It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Given the development and establishment of the inclusive pedagogy in recent decades, it is unfortunate that until now very few studies, and only those of a qualitative case study design, have been conducted to examine the multifaceted aspects associated with the inclusion processes of students with disabilities studying in PE TPPs. A welcoming classroom – all abilities, one education Inclusion lies at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals. For example, in one study [61], 125 pre-service elementary, secondary, and special education teachers were interviewed in order to identify aspects of university coursework and assigned field experiences that contribute to their ability to implement inclusion. They also presented a number of issues that they wanted to discuss with the members of the committee, such as how to enable the students with disabilities to be more independent in their studies. Further research is warranted to address evidence-based adaptation practices. 0000003244 00000 n The concept of inclusion was conceived in 1948 with the declaration adopted by the UN General Assembly on the “International Bill of Rights” which recognises that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. In this chapter, we address the inclusion challenge, namely how we have taken up the challenge to modify one existing teacher preparation program (TPP) in physical education (PE) to enable students with disabilities to study at the same level as the other students who are enrolled in the program. With the increased implementation of inclusive education, teacher educators have also been challenged to make changes in their programs in order to prepare students to educate diverse learners. However, there are very limited means for utilizing such tools within the inclusion framework, particularly in the PE domain where disabilities are not limited to learning and/or behavioral deficiencies but rather to a broad range of physical, sensory, and mental issues that may significantly change performance goals, patterns, and contexts. Students can use concepts, ideas, and themes learned in the disciplinary classes and apply them in the pedagogical classes. Inclusion is a worthy goal that should not be abandoned. The following are two advantages for the imposed link between disciplinary and pedagogical studies: By taking classes in their selected discipline/s and classes in pedagogy across the 4-year program, the students are provided with a unique opportunity to integrate the different types of knowledge emerging from the various classes. Key words: Inclusive Education,Children with special needs, Disabilities, Inclusion Scholarly Research Journal's is licensed Based on … Inclusion: quality physical education is a platform for inclusion in wider society, particularly in terms of challenging stigma and overcoming stereotypes. Explain the role of Occupational Therapists for children with special needs. Reflective practices are among the most important tools for teachers’ self-development and include writing journals and portfolios and using systematic observations and field notes [46]. Physical education is a diverse and dynamic environment. In the first section, we introduce the term inclusive education, elaborate upon its concepts, and highlight a number of developmental phases associated with this term. In order to follow the principles of the leading frameworks of inclusion (e.g., [28, 30]), as well as to effectively deal with the pedagogical challenge of inclusion, a number of actions were taken: In accordance with national legislation [70] and the International Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities [6], as well as following a number of applications submitted to the college, the board of the college has committed to accepting and enabling students with disabilities to participate in the PE TPP. However, in the United States it is up to every state—and sometimes even the educational region—to specify the regulations supporting the development of inclusive frameworks and enabling increased participation of youth and adults with a disability in physical activity. One of the very few examples of such research is the study of Kalyvas and Reid [37], who measured performance and satisfaction of different groups in school-aged children, with and without disability, who participated in Newcomb volleyball with and without additional adaptations (e.g., using a large balloon-type ball or serving from a shorter distance), and found that adaptation improved performance in both groups of children—those with and without a disability—and that satisfaction of the children without a disability was related to their age. This limits their ability to fully access or participate in learning. Physical education is a diverse and dynamic environment. Students enter the classroom with a broad range of skills, and teachers are expected to assist each of those students toward mastery. In these meetings, the students provided a verbal report of their experiences helping the students with disabilities. Due to the high variability and specificity of different students with disability, many teachers feel inadequately trained and not competent enough to meet the demands of inclusive education [19, 49]. 0000023639 00000 n The data obtained from external sources (e.g., teachers who supervise the students in their teaching practices in schools) can complement the data collected from internal sources (e.g., the students) and provide the researcher with a full picture of the changes/modifications made in the TPP, so that the needs of students with disabilities can be met. The main purpose of these meetings was to listen to the “story” of the students with disabilities, in order to understand how they actually felt in the PE TPP. Making modifications in the PE TPP: in order to address the special needs of the students with disabilities, two main modifications were made: (1) modifications in the classrooms/lecture halls and (2) modifications in the activity classes. Foundations of Inclusive Education Research, volume 6. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Inclusion, thus, results in greater social cohesion, a greater sense of empathy, and a greater sense of diversity. In a number of disciplines (e.g., the arts, dance, PE), the teaching certification authorizes the students to teach in high schools as well. What we mean by inclusive education Inclusion Integration Segregation Exclusion All students benefit, academically and socially, when provided with a high quality inclusive education. This is a principle of inclusive … “The teachers … 0000015247 00000 n 0000013700 00000 n Members of the college staff responsible for the inclusion program met with key figures from the Ministry of Education: a series of meetings were conducted with a number of key figures from the Ministry of Education (e.g., the principle supervisor of PE) in order to (1) provide these individuals with an updated report on the inclusion of the students with disabilities in our TPP; (2) consult with them on how to improve the inclusion process; and (3) discuss future teaching opportunities for the students with disabilities in schools, be it elementary, junior high, or high school. 0000003329 00000 n Health: physical education is the entry-point for lifelong participation in physical activity. What is the need of inclusive education? The specific practice of opening supportive and adaptive practices for all has been acknowledged as the universal design-for-learning approach [40], which has been developed as an adaptation of the universal design approach in architecture [41], and has been recommended for inclusive PE [42]. One of the components of a comprehensive assessment plan in an inclusive physical education program is an evalu-ation model whereby student learning is measured on both improvement of group performance and individual improve-ment. This is common also in the case of PE [50], and therefore pre-service or in-service training is necessary. This informative webinar helps participants understand the concept of Universal Design for Learning and how using this system will allow all children to be included in physical education lessons. The concept of inclusive education has come to mean many things: from the very specific – for example, the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream schools – to a very broad notion of social inclusion as used by governments and the international community as a way of responding to diversity among learners (Ainscow, 2007). Some educators are very receptive to the ideals of inclusion and all that it in tells. In another optional design—a mixed-methods research design—researchers collect, analyze, and “mix” both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or a series of studies in order to understand the research problem. Explain the concept of inclusion. Inclusion in the Classroom Review Inclusion, in the world of education, is an approach or teaching strategy that focuses on including students with disabilities in the general education setting. By utilizing the ABC model, physical educators can assess and modify the curriculum to meet the needs of all stu- The older children were less satisfied with the adapted conditions. Although the activities may be modified or adapted, students with disabilities learn the same concepts, skills, and content as all other students in the class. Physical Education Class 12 Notes Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs : Divyangs 4.1 Concept of Disability and Disorder Disability and disorder are two separate terms that stand for different types of physical and mental conditions. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. The Systematic Ecological Modification Approach (SEMA; [34]) is a task-analytical teacher’s reflection tool, providing guidance throughout the journey of inclusive practice. Keywords: Self-concept, self-esteem, disability, inclusion, physical education . 0000012131 00000 n Our aim in these discussions was also to develop an understanding of how to enable the inclusion of physical educators with disabilities into the schools. In a successful Inclusive Physical Education program, all students are fully engaged in instructional activities, sharing equally and learning together. However, in most countries the number of such professionals is very limited. Inclusive education is a relatively controversial topic for many parents and educators. Benefits of Inclusive Education. Guide for Ensuring Inclusion and Equity in Education provides perhaps the clearest conceptualisation of how inclusive education can be deemed successful: Table 1: Key dimensions for establishing inclusive and equitable education systems S 1.2 1.1 Inclusion and equity are overarching principles that guide all education policies, plans, Two experts in the area of adapted physical activity who work at the college planned a number of meetings where major issues associated with inclusion were discussed. They reported about the challenges and difficulties they encountered in the classes they took, as well as about their personal and academic achievements, and talked about how they viewed the modifications made in the TPP. In addition to the students with these specific disabilities who had applied, the objective of the board was to enable individuals with a larger spectrum of disabilities to apply for the PE TPP. For example, a student with a neurologic impairment of the lower limbs, who may be able to walk with crutches, might need a racing wheelchair in order to conform with both the developing aerobic endurance goals and rules for participating in school track competitions. Data that can be collected from faculty members, board and committees members, and students at large can assist in evaluating the strengths of the inclusion process (e.g., political, educational, pedagogical), how the program helped students with disabilities develop their disciplinary/pedagogical knowledge, and what aspects of the program need to be improved upon. The development of inclusive education was highlighted by the Salamanca Declaration on Education for Children with Special Needs [5], which asserted that inclusion in regular schools is the most effective means of combating discrimination, supporting education for all, and building an inclusive society. The Concept of Inclusive Education and Understanding Children with Special Needs. It refers to an education system that accommodates all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social emotional, linguistic or other conditions. Those who are involved in inclusion processes, policymakers, lecturers, and in this case those students with disabilities who were enrolled in the PE TPP, should be able to answer the following question—Was the curriculum-pedagogical effort worth it? The main disadvantage of “integration” was that the physical placement was not accompanied by organizational support within the general schools or by significant changes in its content and teaching practices. Explain the role of Physiotherapist for children with special needs. Ans. Isn’t it better to separate children who need specialized attention? Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. The international supportive policies with regard to inclusive physical activity have been discussed earlier. 0000003932 00000 n It’s an often misunderstood and misused concept; many schools claim to be inclusive, but with the best will in the world, few are. When making certain adjustments in the TPPs for those students with disabilities, such as students with physical impairments, vision impairments, or intellectual impairments, two main pedagogical challenges need to be considered: (a) What actions should be taken to prepare the lecturers/instructors to work with these students? In TPPs offered by the universities, students are required to study at least one major discipline (but no more than two) and only then complete their teaching certification studies. 0000022481 00000 n In fact, additional discussions should be held in order to generate ideas on how to ensure that students with disabilities will be hired as PE teachers. One way to cope with the uncertainty about curricula and practice created through the inclusion process is to receive supervision or mentoring from experienced professionals. TPPs are offered by Israel in two types of higher-education institutions—universities and academic colleges of education. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC), which has pioneered legislation mandating a free and appropriate education, applauds the concept of inclusive schools in a recently released inclusion policy entitled The Child's Educational Needs Come First (May 12, 1993). Benefits of Inclusion for Students With Disabilities. But CEC also endorses the availability of options-a continuum of services and placements to meet each individual student's needs. Therefore, the discussions focused mainly on the importance of having students with disabilities in the college but also were centered on how to handle potential reactions—not only among lecturers, particularly those who teach physical activity classes, but also among students. In the urban education situation, the issue of inclusion tends to be more complicated due to the high number of … The Academic College at Wingate, Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities, volume 5. Students with special and exceptional needs are placed in inclusive learning environments more frequently than in the past. 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